There are 5 basic components of communication:

  1. Sender
  2. Receiver
  3. Medium
  4. Message
  5. Feedback


In the communications process, the sender encodes the message using words,pictures, symbols sends it through a selected medium.

The receiver decodes the message based on his or her personal characteristics and experience, and responds based on such factors as selective exposure, selective perception, comprehension and psychological noise.

There are 2 types of communications:


  1. Interpersonal Communications
  2. Mass Communications


Interpersonal communications occur on a personal level between tow or more people and may be verbal or non verbal, formal or informal.

Interpersonal communications take place in person,by telephone,by mail,by email,on the web etc., 

In mass communications, there is no direct contact between source and receiver.

Mass communications occur through such impersonal  media as television, radio, newspapers and magazines.

Feedback is an essential component of all types of communications because it provides the sender with some notion as to whether and how well the message has been received.

The credibility of the source, a vital element in message persuasiveness, often is based on the source’s perceived intentions.

Informal sources and neutral or editorial sources are considered to be highly objective and thus highly credible. The credibility of a commercial source is more complex and usually is based on a composite evaluation of its reputation,expertise,and knowledge and that of the medium in which it advertises, the retail channel and company spokespersons.

Media Selection depends on the product,the audience, and the advertising objectives of the campaign.Each medium has advantages and shortcomings that must be weighed in the selection of  media for an advertising campaign.

Following the emergence of new technologies, many advertisers are now developing more customized communications that can reach consumers via media with narrow casting, rather than broadcasting.

The manner in which a message is presented influences its impact. One sided messages are more effective in some situations and with some audiences; two sided messages are more effective with others.

High involvement products are best advertised through the central route to persuasion, which encourages active cognitive effort. 

Marketers can either use objective,factual appeals or emotional appeals. The emotional appeals most frequently used in advertising fear, humour,sexual appeals etc.,

Audience participation is a very effective communications strategy becuase it encourages internalization of the advertising message.

What are the challenges you are facing in designing and delivering your Marketing Communications to your current and potential customers?