After recruitment and selection, the next step in providing appropriate human resources to the organization is Training.


Training is the process of developing qualities in human resources that will enable them to be more productive and thus to contribute more to organizational goal attainment.


The purpose of training is to increase the productivity of employees by influencing their behaviour.


The training of individuals in an organization is essentially a 4 step process:


  1. Determining the Training Needs
  2. Designing the Training Program
  3. Administering the Training Program
  4. Evaluating the Training Program




The 1st step of the training process is determining the organization’s training needs.


Training Needs are the information or skill areas of an individual or group that require further development to increase the productivity of that individual or group.

Only if the training focuses on these needs, it can be productive for the organization.


Training is a continuous activity. Even employees who have been with the organization for some time and who have undergone initial orientation and skills training need continued training to improve their skills.


            Determining the Needed Skills:


There are several methods of determining which skills to focus on with established human resources. One method calls for evaluating the production process within the organization. Factors like excessive rejections, missed deadlines, high labour costs are clues to deficiencies in the production related expertise. Similar activities for various departments can be carried out.


Another method for determining training needs includes getting direct feedback from employees on what they believe are the training needs of the organization. Organization members are often able to verbalize clearly and accurately exactly what types of training they require to do a better job.


A third way of determining training needs involves looking into the future. Future company plans and industry trends also provide inputs on likely training requirements.




Designing a training program entails assembling various types of facts and activities designed to meet the identified training needs.




Various techniques exist for both transmitting necessary information and developing needed skills in training programs like:


  1. Lectures – for knowledge transfer
  2. Programmed Learning – for knowledge transfer
  3. On the Job Training  – for skill development
    1. Coaching
    2. Position rotation
    3. Special Project Teams





Training programs have various costs including materials, trainer time and production loss while employees are being trained rather than doing their jobs – a ROI  is essential.


Management should evaluate the training program to determine if it meets with the needs for which it is developed.

E.g.: Has the sales increased, Has the customer complaints reduced, Has production gone up etc.