Consumer Research – Personality & Consumer Behaviour Monday, Nov 24 2008 

Personality can be described as the psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment. Although mostly the personality tends to remain consistent and enduring, it may change abruptly in response to a major life events. Personality also change gradually over time.

Theories:

3 theories of personality are prominent in the study of consume behaviour:

 

  1. Psychoanalytic Theory
  2. Neo-Freudian Theory and 
  3. Trait Theory

 

Freud’s psychoanalytic theory provides the foundation for the study of motivational research, which operates on the premise that human drives are largely unconscious in nature and serve to motivate many consumer actions.

Non- freudian theory tends to emphasize th fundamental role of social relationships in the formation and development of the personality.

Alfred Adler viewed human beings as seeking to overcome feelings of inferiorty.

Harry Stack Sullivan believed  that people attempt to establish significant and rewarding relationships with others.

Karen Horney saw inidividuals as trying to overcome feelings of anxiery and categorized them as compliant, aggresive or detached.

Trait Theory is a major departure from the qualitative or subjective approach to personality measurement. It postulates that individuals possess innate pyschological traits to a greater or lesser degree, and that traits can be measured by specifically designed scales or inventories.

Because they are simple to use and to score and  can be self-administered, personality inventories are the preferred mehtod for many researchers in the assessment of consumer personality.

Product and brand personalities represent real opportunities for marketers to take advantage of consumers’ connections to various brands they offer.

Brands often have personalities- some include “humanlike” traits and even gender. These brand personalities help shape consumer responses, preferences and loyalities.

Each individual has a perceived self image or images as a certain kind of person with certain traits, possessions, relationships, habits, behaviours etc., Consumers frequently attempt to preserve, enhance, alter or extend their self images by purchasing products or services and shopping at stores they percieve as consistent with their relevant self image and by avoiding products and stores they percieve as not consistent to their self image.

What are the personalities of your target consumers?

What is your company’s brand image? What is your product/services image?

MANAGEMENT INNOVATIONS

managementinnovations2020@gmail.com;  manojonkar@gmail.com; 91-9375970812

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Consumer Motivation Sunday, Nov 23 2008 

What is Consumer Motivation?

Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. This driving force is produced by a state of uncomfortable tension, which exists as the result of an unsatisfied need. All individuals have needs, wants and desires. The individual’s subconscious drive to reduce need-induced tensions results in behaviour that he or she anticipates will satisfy needs and thus bring about a more comfortable internal state.

All behaviour is goal oriented. Goals are the sought-after results of motivated behaviour. The form or direction that  behaviour takes-the goal that is selected-is a result of thinking processes(cognition) and previous learning(e.g. experience).

There are 2 types of goals: generic goals and product-specific goals. A generic goal is a general category of goal that may fulfill a certain need; a product-specific goal is a specifically branded or labeled product that individual sees as a way to fulfill a need.

Product-specific needs are sometimes referred to as wants.

What are Innate Needs?

Innate Needs are those an individual is born with. They are Physiological (biogenic) in nature; they include all factors required to sustain physical life (e.g. food, water, shelter, clothing, sex, physical safety etc.,).

What are Acquired Needs?

Acquired needs those an individual develops after birth are primarily psychological (psychogenic). They include love, acceptance, esteem, and self-fulfillment.

For any given need, there are many different and appropriate goals. The Specific goal  selected depends on the individual’s experiences, physical capacity, prevailing cultural norms and values, and the goal’s accessibility in the physical and social environment.

What is the relationship between Needs and Goals?

Needs and goals are interdependent and change in response to the individual’s physical condition, environment, interaction with other people, and experiences. As needs become satisfied, new, higher order needs emerge that must be fulfilled.

How do People deal with Failure in achieving the goals?

Failure to achieve a goal often results in feelings of frustration. Individuals react to frustration in two ways:”fight” or “flight”. They may cope by finding a way around the obstacle that prohibits goal attainment or by adopting a substitute goal (fight); or they may adopt a defense mechanism that enables them to protect their self esteem (flight). Defense mechanisms include aggression, regression, rationalization, withdrawal, projection,daydreaming, identification, and repression.

Motives & Behaviours:

Motives cannot easily be inferred from consumer behaviour. People with different needs may seek fulfillment through selection of the same goals; people with the same needs may seek fulfillment through different goals. 

Although some psychologists have suggested that individuals have different needs priorities, other believe that most human beings experience the same basic needs, to which they assign a similar priority ranking.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory proposes five levels of human needs; physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, egoistic needs and self actualization needs.

Other needs widely integrated into consumer advertising include the needs for power, affiliation and achievement.

What are the 3 common methods for identifying and measuring human motives?

  1. Observation and Inference
  2. Subjective Reports
  3. Qualitative Research – including projective techniques.

None of these methods is completely reliable by itself.

Therefore researchers often use a combination of 2 or 3 techniques in tandem to assess the presence or strength of consumer motives.

What is Motivational Research ?

Motivational research is qualitative research designed to delve below the consumer’s level of conscious awareness. Despite some shortcomings, motivational research has proved to be of great value to marketers concerned with developing new ideas and new copy appeals.

Customer and Consumer Behaviour Friday, Nov 21 2008 

The study of consumer behaviour enables the marketers to fully understand and be able to predict the consumer behaviours. It deals with not only with what the customer buy, but also with why, when, where, how, and how often they buy it.

Consumer Research is the Methodology that is used to study Customer and Consumer behaviour and it takes place at every stage/phase of the consumption process: before, during, and after the purchase.

The foundation fo the consumer behaviour is the Marketing Concept. Marketing Concept is the business orientation that evolved in the second half of the last century and is picking up more and more in the current environment. Marketing Concept was the evolution of the industry over the earlier concepts of production and product.

The 3 major strategies tools fo marketing are Market Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning.

The Marketing Mix consists of a company’s products and services offering(S) to customers and the pricing, promotion and distribution methods needed to accomplish the deal.

The Professional Marketers make the customers the core of the company’s culture and ensure that all employees view any interaction with the customers as a part of a Customer Relationship and not just a Transaction. The Top 3 drivers of successful relationships between marketers and customers are customer value, high levels of customer satisfaction, and building a  structure for customer retention.

Consumer behaviour is multi disciplinary, i.e it is based on various theories and concepts about people that have been developed by scientists in such diverse disciplines as economics, cultural anthropology, social psychology, sociology and psychology.

Consumer behaviour has to be an integral part of strategic market planning. 

Contact for further inputs:

MANAGEMENT INNOVATIONS

managementinnovations2020@gmail.com;   manojonkar@gmail.com;  91-9375970812