The Scientific Method of problem solving dictates that one should:

  1. Systematically observe the system whose behaviour must be explained to solve the problem.
  2. Use these specific observations and from which consequences of changing the system can be predicted.
  3. Use the model to deduce how the system will behave under conditions that have not been observe but could be observed if the changes were made.
  4. Finally, test the model by performing an experiment on the actual system to see if the effects of changes predicted using the model actually occur when the changes are made.

The OR ( Operations Research) groups proved very successful at using the scientific method to solve the problems.



The contingency approach to management emphasizes that what managers do in practice depends on, or is contingent upon, a given set of circumstances – a situation.

In essence, this approach emphasizes “if-then” relationships.

“If” this situational variable exists,”then” this is the action a manager probably would take.

In general, the contingency approach attempts to outline the conditions or situations in which various management methods have the best chance of success.                                                                                        

This approach is based on the premise that, although there is probably no one best way to solve a management problem in all organizations, there probably is one best way to solve any given management problem in any one organization.


  1. Perceiving organizational situations as they actually exist.
  2. Choosing the management tactics best suited to those situations.
  3. Competently implementing those tactics.

The notion of a contingency approach to management is a popular discussion topic for contemporary management thinkers.


The system approach to management is based on general system theory. Ludwign von Bertalanffy as scientist is recognised as the founder of the general system theory.

The main premise of the theory is that to understand fully the operation of an entity, the entity as viewed as a system.

A system is a number of interdependent parts functioning as a whole for some purpose.